Configurando o Ubuntu 11.04 (multimídia, codecs, …) a partir do zero

Para configurar o Ubuntu do zero, partindo da imagem original do site http://releases.ubuntu.com/11.04/ , primeiro baixe a imagem “Desktop CD” – PC Intel x86 “para processadores Intel/AMD 32 bits”  ou  64-bits PC AMD64 “para processadores Intel/AMD 64 bits”, a escolha da imagem deve ser feita de acordo com o processador do seu PC (desktop, notebook ou netbook) – “veja na documentação do seu computador o modelo :  32 bits ou 64 bits”, grave o CD e instale o Ubuntu. Dica : no site  http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/daily-live/current/, é possível baixar, além das versões acima, a versão para computadores Apple MAC.
Sugiro que vejam, antes de instalar, este ótimo tutorial de instalação do Ubuntu 11.04 :
http://www.todoespacoonline.com/post.php?id=1049
Após a instalação vamos configurar o Ubuntu para melhorar o suporte a codecs e multimídia, além de instalar vários programas bastante úteis, para isso siga os passos abaixo :
Configurando o arquivo de repositórios do Ubuntu :  /etc/apt/sources.list
Pressione as teclas “ALT + F2″, digite o comando :  gksu gedit /etc/apt/sources.list , pressione a tecla “ENTER”. Será solicitada a sua senha de usuário para receber direitos de superusuário, digite-a e pressione a tecla “ENTER”. Edite o arquivo para que fique com o conteúdo semelhante ao apresentado abaixo (dica : selecione o texto abaixo, entre os marcadores “Início arquivo” e “Fim arquivo”, pressione as teclas “Ctrl + C”, vá para a janela do gedit e selecione a opção do menu “Editar->Selecionar tudo”, pressione a tecla “DEL”, pressione as teclas “Ctrl + V” para colar e pressione as teclas “Ctrl + S” para salvar o novo texto) :
— Início arquivo
# See http://help.ubuntu.com/community/UpgradeNotes for how to upgrade to
# newer versions of the distribution.
deb http://br.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ natty main restricted
deb-src http://br.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ natty main restricted
## Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the
## distribution.
deb http://br.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ natty-updates main restricted
deb-src http://br.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ natty-updates main restricted
## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team. Also, please note that software in universe WILL NOT receive any
## review or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb http://br.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ natty universe
deb-src http://br.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ natty universe
deb http://br.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ natty-updates universe
deb-src http://br.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ natty-updates universe
## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to
## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in
## multiverse WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu
## security team.
deb http://br.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ natty multiverse
deb-src http://br.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ natty multiverse
deb http://br.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ natty-updates multiverse
deb-src http://br.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ natty-updates multiverse
## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from the ‘backports’
## repository.
## N.B. software from this repository may not have been tested as
## extensively as that contained in the main release, although it includes
## newer versions of some applications which may provide useful features.
## Also, please note that software in backports WILL NOT receive any review
## or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb http://br.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ natty-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://br.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ natty-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu natty-security main restricted
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu natty-security main restricted
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu natty-security universe
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu natty-security universe
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu natty-security multiverse
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu natty-security multiverse
## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from Canonical’s
## ‘partner’ repository.
## This software is not part of Ubuntu, but is offered by Canonical and the
## respective vendors as a service to Ubuntu users.
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu natty partner
deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu natty partner
## This software is not part of Ubuntu, but is offered by third-party
## developers who want to ship their latest software.
deb http://extras.ubuntu.com/ubuntu natty main
deb-src http://extras.ubuntu.com/ubuntu natty main
# Inserido por mim
deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ natty free non-free
deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/tualatrix/ubuntu natty main
deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/ubuntu-wine/ppa/ubuntu natty main
-– Fim arquivo
Para configurar o Ubuntu, primeiro execute o Terminal, para isso selecione a opção Aplicativos->Acessórios->Terminal no menu da barra superior. Na janela do Terminal execute os comandos abaixo :
Instalando as chaves PGP dos repositórios inseridos :
wget -q https://dl-ssl.google.com/linux/linux_signing_key.pub -O- | sudo apt-key add –
sudo apt-key adv –recv-keys –keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com FE85409EEAB40ECCB65740816AF0E1940624A220
sudo apt-key adv –keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com –recv-keys F9CB8DB0
sudo apt-get –quiet update
sudo apt-get –yes –quiet –allow-unauthenticated install medibuntu-keyring && sudo apt-get –quiet update
Atualizando o sistema :


sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

Instalando novos pacotes (programas, bibliotecas, …) :
Melhorar o suporte ao idioma português do Brasil :
sudo apt-get install -y language-pack-pt language-pack-pt-base language-support-pt language-support-writing-pt language-pack-gnome-pt language-pack-gnome-pt-base language-pack-kde-pt language-pack-gnome-pt-base libreoffice-l10n-common libreoffice-l10n-pt-br libreoffice-help-pt-br
Compactadores de arquivos :
sudo apt-get install -y arj lha rar unace-nonfree unrar p7zip p7zip-full p7zip-rar
Melhorar o suporte a multimídia :
sudo apt-get install -y ubuntu-restricted-extras vlc miro sound-juicer mencoder ffmpeg devede dvdrip k9copy mp3gain libdvdread4 libdvdnav4 lame mplayer aacplusenc libdvdcss2  gecko-mediaplayer aacgain aacplusenc gtk-recordMyDesktop subtitleeditor subtitleripper winff subdownloader cheese
Gráficos :

sudo apt-get install -y dia inkscape gimp gimp-dcraw fusion-icon emerald compizconfig-settings-manager mjpegtools imagemagick

Internet :
sudo apt-get install -y emesene skype gwget firestarter chromium-browser chromium-browser-l10n chromium-codecs-ffmpeg-extra chromium-codecs-ffmpeg-nonfree
Suporte a programas feitos para Windows :

sudo apt-get install -y wine1.3 winetricks

Outros :

sudo apt-get install -y zenity wget build-essential nautilus-clamscan nautilus-gksu nautilus-image-converter nautilus-wallpaper aria2  gparted ubuntu-tweak xarchiver sun-java6-jre sun-java6-plugin sun-java6-fonts gnash adobeair

Instalando codecs :

  • Para o Ubuntu 32 bits :
    • sudo apt-get install w32codecs
  •  Para o Ubuntu 64 bits :
    • sudo apt-get install w64codecs

Instalando o kernel com suporte a mais de 3 GB de memória para o Ubuntu 32 bits (o kernel da versão de 64 bits já suporta mais de 3 GB de memória) :

sudo apt-get install linux-generic-pae linux-headers-generic-pae

Caso utilize placa wireless Broadcom (notebooks HP, …), instale o driver :

  • Modelos BCM43xx, padrão 802.11 g :
    • sudo apt-get install b43-fwcutter firmware-b43-installer
  •  Modelos BCM4311-, BCM4312-, BCM4321- e BCM4322, padrão 802.11 b,g,n :
    • sudo apt-get install broadcom-sta-common

O melhor plugin Java para o Firefox é o sun-java6-plugin que a instalação foi sugerida acima (ver em Outros:), caso você instale o sun-java6-plugin deve desinstalar o plugin icedtea6 :
sudo apt-get remove –purge icedtea6-plugin icedtea6-jre-cacao icedtea6-jre-jamvm openjdk-6-dbg openjdk-6-demo openjdk-6-doc openjdk-6-jre openjdk-6-jre-lib openjdk-6-jre-headless